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The ocean, sustainable development and human rights

“Scaling up ocean action based on science and innovation for the implementation of Goal 14: stocktaking, partnerships and solutions’ was the theme of the second United Nations (UN) Ocean Conference, which took place in Lisbon, Portugal, from 27 June to 1 July 2022. 1 The resulting political declaration contains a commitment to transformative change with […]

Strengthening Intergenerational Equity at the Ocean-Climate Nexus: Reflections on the UNCRC General Comment No.26

“The 2021 Glasgow Climate Pact brought the ocean into the international climate regime, and the 2022 Sharm el-Sheikh COP27 of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) has finally ushered the world into a special fund to respond to loss and damage associated with the adverse effects of climate change, including on the human […]

The implications of seabed mining in the Area for the human right to health

“As the prospect of seabed mining in the Area looms closer, much of the debate to date has focused on the prospects of economic gain versus environmental harm. This article contends that potential human health implications must also be considered, including threats to food safety and security and acceleration of global climate change. Through analysis […]

Public participation at the International Seabed Authority: An international human rights law analysis

“In light of the interlinkages between marine biodiversity and the protection of human rights, this article explores the relevance of international human rights law to the decision-making processes at the International Seabed Authority (ISA). It illuminates the relevance of the ISA decisions for the protection of everyone’s right to a healthy environment, as well as […]

International legal requirements for environmental and socio-cultural assessments for large-scale industrial fisheries

“Although Ghana has ratified several relevant treaties related to the ocean, and the country recognises local communities’ customary laws as an important source of law, there is limited research on the integration of customary laws and practices into marine small-scale fisheries governance. This article addresses this gap by analysing customary law systems and practices of […]

Integrating communities’ customary laws into marine small-scale fisheries governance in Ghana: Reflections on the FAO Guidelines for Securing Sustainable Small-Scale Fisheries

“Although Ghana has ratified several relevant treaties related to the ocean, and the country recognises local communities’ customary laws as an important source of law, there is limited research on the integration of customary laws and practices into marine small-scale fisheries governance. This article addresses this gap by analysing customary law systems and practices of […]

Casting the net wider? The transformative potential of integrating human rights into the implementation of the WTO Agreement on Fisheries Subsidies

“The removal of harmful fisheries subsidies is essential to reverse unsustainable fisheries globally. This goal has now, in part, been met following the World Trade Organization Ministerial Conference in June 2022, which adopted an Agreement on Fisheries Subsidies. There is a vast literature on the trade law issues associated with fisheries subsidies, and much has […]

A principled approach for BBNJ: An idea whose time has come

“Environmental justice refers broadly to the distribution of environmental benefits and burdens, and the fair treatment and meaningful involvement of all people in environmental decision-making and legal frameworks. The field of environmental justice initially developed out of a concern for the disproportionate distribution and impacts of environmental pollution and hazardous waste disposal on groups that […]

Environmental (in)justice in the Anthropocene ocean

“Environmental justice refers broadly to the distribution of environmental benefits and burdens, and the fair treatment and meaningful involvement of all people in environmental decision-making and legal frameworks. The field of environmental justice initially developed out of a concern for the disproportionate distribution and impacts of environmental pollution and hazardous waste disposal on groups that […]